• stringed instruments: guitar; guitarrón (Mexican bass); charango (a small instrument with ten strings and a resonance box made of the shell of an armadillo); a wooden charango with wooden tunebuttons and metal strings from Potosí; k'onkhota (typical longnecked stringed instrument with metal strings, from the area of Norte de Potosí, Tupaj Katari).
• chajchas (rattles, made of the nails of goats and llama's).
• different kind of drums and small rhythm-instruments.
• wind instruments: sicus, sankas y toyos (panpipes in various lengths, which are played interlockingly in pairs); tarkas (wooden flutes with a hard, ‘jumping’ sound, typical for the Carnival on the Altiplano of Bolivia); quena (a reed flute without a mouth-piece); clarinet; kazoo (a North-American flute, on which the voice makes the tones).
Dancer in the procession for the feast of the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception. Bailadora de un desfile durante la fiesta de la Virgincita de Inmaculata Concepcion. Photo by Hans Elzinga, La Paz, Bolivia, December 8, 1990.