Between 1966 and 1970, he studied instrumentation with Günther Becker during the Darmstadt Summer Courses. In 1969, thanks to a scholarship from the Juan March Foundation, he trained at the Psychoacoustics and Electronic Music Institute at the University of Ghent. The following year one of his first electroacoustic works (Rabelaisiennes, for prepared guitar, magnetic tape and filters) was nominated for the Gaudeamus Festival Award.
He belonged to the Koan group, as both compositor and musician, during its early period (1967-1970). In 1969, he started to work with the Alea laboratory in Madrid. Between 1970 and 1972, he was part of the Alea Música Electrónica Libre group, the first Spanish group playing electroacoustic music live.
In 1976, he moved to Barcelona where he worked closely with the Phonos Laboratory.
In 1983, he founded Obert-Art Actual, in cooperation with Rafael Santamaria. They organized the Sis Dies d'Art Actual, multimedia festivals in Barcelona three years running, from 1983 to 85. In 1985, with Gabriel Brncic and Claudio Zulian, he started Multimusica, a group specializing in live electroacoustic music.
One of the characteristics of his work since 1969 is the almost total abandon of traditional instruments in favor of electroacoustic sources. He generally interprets his own work in concerts, combining magnetic tapes, synthesizers and processors in real time - often accompanied by videos or other elements created by visual artists.
Among the most imposing examples of this cooperation with these plasticians are: “Calidoscopi” (1976), an audiovisual spectacle with lights sculptures by Eduardo Magliano, Sala Zeleste, Barcelona ; “ Per a Matar·ho ” (1977), a performance with the painter Ferrán García Sevilla, Mataró, Barcelona ; “Dempeus Assegut Agenollat” (1981), an action with Rafael Santamaria, Espai 10 - Foundation Miró, Barcelona ; “Sottovoce” (1983), musical environment for a video installation by Rafael Santamaria, Metrònom Gallery, Barcelona ; “Vilafranca-Eclipsi” (1985), video installation with Carles Pujol, Sant Joan’s Chapel, Vilafranca del Penedès, Barcelona ; “El Lloguer del Miraller” (1987), performance with Rafael Santamaria, Tramesa d'Art en favor de la creatividad, Palau de la Música, Valencia ; “Alteraciones” (1989), a spectacle with sound sculptures and lights with the painter Toni Rueda, Encontre de Compositors X, Palau Solleric, Palma de Majorca ; “Electroacústica, Visuales y Grand Chapeau Chinois” (1991), performance with photography by Santiago Torralba, 4 Minimalismos 4, Autumn Festival of the Madrid Community ; “Tócame una poloniesa” (1993), Foundation Antoni Tàpies, Barcelona and “Ressó, Imatges • Performance Electroacústica” (1994), Foundation Pilar y Joan Miró, Palma de Majorca, concerts with slides by Santiago Torralba and videos by Carles Pujol ; “Música imaginada” (1996), spectacle with films and slides by Santiago Torralba and Pablo Arribe, Reina Sofía Museum, Madrid ; “L'Arc” (1997), installation with Carles Pujol, Caixa de Manresa, Manresa, Barcelona; "Einai"(1998), video with Eugeni Bonet; "Sugar Cane" (2000), Instalation with Xabela Vargas, Huelva Museum.
He has composed two electroacoustic operas: “Uno es el Cubo • fantasía kepleriana en cinco sólidos perfectos” and “Dulce mal”, whose premiere was during the International Festival of Contemporary Music held in Alicante in 1995 and in 1999.
Eduardo Polonio is also one of the founders of the Spanish Association of Electroacoustic Music - he was its President from 1988 to 1994. It was during his presidency that he organized the first two International Punto de Encuentro de Música Electroacústica Festivals in 1990 and 1992.
In 1994, he was awarded the Magisterium of the Grand Prix International de Musique Électroacoustique in Bourges (France).
At present, he is a member of the International Academy of Electroacoustic Music and of the Committee of the Area de Creació Acústica Foundation of Majorca. He is also president of the Association Creación Musical y Nuevas Tecnologías and Director of the electroacoustic music studio Diáfano. Since 2000, he directs Confluencias, arte y tecnología al borde del milenio, held in Huelva with the patronage of the Autonomous Government of Andalusia