Pierre Schaeffer

Pierre Schaeffer

Real Name:
Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer
Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (born August 14, 1910, Nancy, Lorraine, France - died August 19, 1995, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France) was a French composer, writer, broadcaster, engineer, musicologist and acoustician. He is noted as the inventor of musique concrete. He is generally acknowledged as being the first composer to make music using magnetic tape.

Schaeffer's parents were both engineers, and at first it seemed that Pierre would also take this as a career. He studied at the Ecole Polytechnique and after a stint as a telecommunications engineer in Strasbourg from 1934, he found a job in 1936 at Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française (ORTF) in Paris. It was there that he began to experiment with recorded sounds, convincing the radio station's management to let him use their equipment. He tried playing sounds backwards, slowing them down, speeding them up and juxtaposing them with other sounds, all techniques which were virtually unknown at that time. His first completed piece as a result of these experimentation was the Étude aux chemins de fer (1948) which was made from recordings of trains.

By that time, Schaeffer had founded the Jeune France group, which had interests in theatre and visual art as well as music. In 1942, he co-founded the Studio d'Essai (later known as the Club d'Essai), which played an role in the activities of the French resistance during World War II, and became a centre of musical activity afterwards.

In 1949, Schaeffer met Pierre Henry, and the two founded the Groupe de Recherche de Musique Concrète (GRMC) which received official recognition from ORTF in 1951. They gave him a new studio, which included a tape recorder. This was a significant development for Schaeffer, who had previously had to work with turntables to produce his music. His continued experimentation led him to publish A la recherche d'une musique concrete (The Search for a Concrete Music) in 1952, which was a summation of his working methods up to that point.

Schaeffer left the GRMC in 1953, but reformed it in 1958 with Luc Ferrari and François-Bernard Mâche as the Groupe de Recherches Musicales (GRM).

With the founding of the Service de Recherche de l'ORTF in 1960, of which he was made director, Schaeffer began to wind down his compositional activites in favour of sound research and teaching. One of his last pieces came in 1959, the Etudes aux Objets. In his new position, he continued to conduct his research into the sonic properties of objects, publishing an important work on the subject, Traité des objets musicaux, in 1966. In it, he attempts to classify all sound producing objects by dividing their characteristics into seven categories, which he called mass; dynamic; harmonic timbre; melodic profile; mass profile; gain; and inflection. Up to now no English translation of this massive work has appeared.

Schaeffer took a number of teaching posts, including an associate professorship at the Paris Conservatoire from 1968 where he taught electronic composition. Towards the end of his life, he suffered from Alzheimer's disease. He died in Aix-en-Provence.
In Groups:

Pierre Schaeffer Discography


Pierre Schaeffer & Guy Reibel Pierre Schaeffer & Guy Reibel - Solfège De L'Objet Sonore Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) France 1967 Sell This Version
Pierre Schaeffer Étude Aux Objets - Étude Aux Allures - Étude Aux Sons Animés - Étude De Bruits - L'Oiseau RAI - Suite Quatorze Philips France 1971 Sell This Version
Pierre Schaeffer / Pierre Henry Pierre Schaeffer / Pierre Henry - Symphonie Pour Un Homme Seul / Concerto Des Ambiguïtés (Album) Philips France 1972 Sell This Version
Pierre Schaeffer Le Trièdre Fertile (Album) Philips France 1978 Sell This Version
9106 SC Pierre Schaeffer Parole Et Musique(LP) INA-GRM 9106 SC France 1982 Sell This Version
PN 0461/5 Pierre Schaeffer Dix Ans d'Essais Radiophoniques Du Studio Au Club D'Essai : 1942-1952(4xCD) Phonurgia Nova PN 0461/5 France 1989 Sell This Version
FDM 46050 36286 1, SB 775 Pierre Schaeffer 5 Ētudes De Bruits - Ētude Aux Objets(LP) Disques Dreyfus, Disques Dreyfus FDM 46050 36286 1, SB 775 France 2010 Sell This Version

Singles & EPs

ML 164 Pierre Schaeffer Anamorphoses I & II(7") Gravesaner Blätter ML 164 Germany 1960 Sell This Version
none Groupe De Recherches Musicales, Pierre Schaeffer Groupe De Recherches Musicales, Pierre Schaeffer - Musique Concrete 1959 No. 1(4xFile, MP3, EP, 320) BNF Collection none France 2015


DTL.93121, DTL 93121, DTL93121 Pierre Henry / Pierre Schaeffer / Michel Philippot Pierre Henry / Pierre Schaeffer / Michel Philippot - Panorama Of Musique Concrète No. 2 (Works By Henry, Schaeffer And Philippot) (LP, Comp, Promo) Ducretet-Thomson Records (London), Ducretet-Thomson Records (London), Ducretet-Thomson Records (London) DTL.93121, DTL 93121, DTL93121 UK 1956 Sell This Version
Pierre Schaeffer L'Œuvre Musicale (Comp) INA-GRM France 1990 Sell This Version
141922 Pierre Schaeffer / Claude Arrieu Pierre Schaeffer / Claude Arrieu - La Coquille À Planètes: Suite Fantastique Pour Une Voix Et Douze Monstres En Huit Emissions Radiophoniques(4xCD, Comp) Disques Adès 141922 France 1990 Sell This Version
Ina G 6013, Ina G 6014, Ina G 6015, Ina G 6016 Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer : Paroles D'Homme(4xCD, Comp + Box) INA-GRM, INA-GRM, INA-GRM, INA-GRM Ina G 6013, Ina G 6014, Ina G 6015, Ina G 6016 France 2008 Sell This Version
none Groupe De Recherches Musicales, Pierre Schaeffer Groupe De Recherches Musicales, Pierre Schaeffer - Musique Experimentale(8xFile, MP3, Comp, 320) BNF Collection none France 2013