Son of Johann Olearius, pastor of St. Mary’s church and Superintendent at Halle.
He studied philosophy at the University of Wittenberg.
In 1637, he became Superintendent at Querfurt. In 1643, Duke August of Sachsen-Weissenfels appointed Olearius chief court preacher, and private chaplain in Halle, where he became Kirchenrath in 1657, and General Superintendent in 1664, and from 1680 in Weissenfels.
Olearius wrote a Bible commentary and various devotional works. He also compiled "Geistliche Singe-Kunst", one of the largest and most important German hymnals of the 17th Century. The first edition appeared in Leipzig in 1671, with over 1,200 entries; the second in Leipzig in 1672, with 1,340 hymns. The first edition contained 302 hymns by Olearius himself, marked “D. J. O.”