American multi-instrumentalist, session player, programmer, engineer, and recording artist. He hails from Council Bluffs, Iowa, and studied music, among other subjects, at Coe College in Ceder Rapids, Iowa. He has sessioned for many artists (David Bowie, Phil Collins, Bruce Springsteen, Michael Jackson, et al.), but has worked for U2 since 2001, and P!NK since 2012. He has also operated his own company, Lawless Studio Services, since 1976.