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Database Guidelines 7. Country

Release Country

7.1.1. "Country" refers to the country of origin (the market) of the release. Discovering the country can be very easy, or quite obscure. For small labels, they will usually be based in, and release in, the same country. Larger labels or labels with licensing deals overseas are harder, but the country should always be the place the release was sold and distributed in. For Imports, the country they are imported from is the country of release.

7.1.2. The country is NOT where the release was manufactured. A US label can release licensed recordings in Germany & Netherlands (perhaps manufactured in Austria). If the release is on more than one label, please list the country of the first label you listed in the Label section. Please use the notes field for all information that cannot be handled by the current form, or for any other questions regarding the country field.

7.1.3. Smaller label releases should have matching country designations on all releases, or an explanation why not.

Rights Societies

7.2.1. If you are having trouble determining the country in which a release was marketed, the following list of initials for the organizations of composers, songwriters, publishers, and other administrators of copyright, mechanical rights, performance rights, etc. can be of some help. Please note that this information is not definitive; e.g. the initials "BMI" appearing on a release are an indicator that the release is somewhat more likely than not to originate in the USA. However it is still possible that the item was manufactured for release in some other market, or that BMI is administering royalty collection and payment on behalf of affiliated organizations in other countries, etc., so at best, the info is only a clue, a piece in the puzzle -- not the final word.

  • BIEM = An organization which has had different roles over the years, but for Discogs use they are essentially a rights society. (more info: http://www.biem.org)
  • ACAM = Costa Rica
  • ACDAM = Cuba
  • ACUM = Israel
  • ADDAF = Brazil, founded in 1958
  • AEPI = Greece
  • AGADU = Uruguay
  • AKKA/LAA = Latvia
  • AKM = Austria
  • ALBAUTOR = Albania
  • AMCOS = Australia, New Zealand
  • APA = Paraguay
  • APDASPAC = Peru
  • APDAYC = Peru
  • APRA = Australia
  • ARTISJUS = Hungary
  • ASCAP = USA
  • AUSTROMECHANA = Austria
  • BMI = USA
  • BUMA = Netherlands
  • CAPAC = Canada (Composers, Authors and Publishers Association of Canada) (defunct) (see wikipedia)
  • CASH = Hong Kong
  • CEDAR = Netherlands
  • CISAC = international
  • CMRRA = Canada
  • COTT = Trinidad, Tobago
  • EAU = Estonia
  • FCA = Fiji
  • FILSCAP = Philippines
  • GEMA = Germany
  • GESAC = Europe
  • GESAP = Georgia
  • GRAMO = Norway
  • GVL = Germany
  • HDS = Croatia
  • HFA = USA
  • IMRO = Ireland
  • IPRS = India
  • JASRAC = Japan
  • KCI = Indonesia
  • KODA = Denmark
  • KOMCA = South Korea
  • LATGA-A = Lithuania
  • MACP = Malaysia
  • MCPS = UK
  • MCSC = China
  • MCSK = Kenya
  • MESAM = Turkey
  • MUSICAUTOR = Bulgaria
  • MUST = Taiwan
  • NCB = Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Lithuania, Estonia - also written as "n©b"
    OSA = Czech Republic (former Czechoslovakia)
  • PAMRA = UK
  • PPL = UK
  • PROCAN = Canada (Performing Rights Organization of Canada Limited) (defunct) (see laws.justice.gc.ca)
  • PRS = UK
  • RAO = Russian Federation
  • SABAM = Belgium
  • SACEM = France
  • SACEM Luxembourg = Luxembourg
  • SACM = Mexico
  • SACVEN = Venezuela
  • SADAIC = Argentina
  • SAMI = Sweden
  • SAMRO = South Africa
  • SAYCO = Colombia
  • SAZAS = Slovenia
  • SBACEM = Brazil
  • SCPP = France
  • SCD = Chile
  • SDRM = France
  • SEDRIM - Italy
  • SENA = Netherlands
  • SESAC = USA
  • SGA = Guinea-Bissau
  • SGAE = Spain
  • SIAE = Italy, The Vatican, San Marino
  • SOCAN = Canada
  • SODRAC = Canada
  • SOKOJ = Serbia, Montenegro (former Yugoslavia)
  • SOZA = Slovakia (former Czechoslovakia)
  • SPA = Portugal
  • STEF = Iceland
  • STEMRA = Netherlands
  • STIM = Sweden
  • SUISA = Switzerland, Liechtenstein
  • TEOSTO = Finland
  • TONO = Norway
  • UACRR = Ukraine
  • UBC = Brazil
  • UCMR-ADA = Romania
  • ZAIKS = Poland

South African releases may also be identified by logos for: ASAMI (The Association of the South African Music Industry) up to 2000; and its successor organisation: RiSA (The Recording Industry of South Africa) from 2000. These are trade bodies and not rights societies.