Pierre Schaeffer

Vero nome:
Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer
Profilo:
Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (born August 14, 1910, Nancy, Lorraine, France - died August 19, 1995, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France) was a French composer, writer, broadcaster, engineer, musicologist and acoustician. He is noted as the inventor of musique concrete. He is generally acknowledged as being the first composer to make music using magnetic tape.

Schaeffer's parents were both engineers, and at first it seemed that Pierre would also take this as a career. He studied at the Ecole Polytechnique and after a stint as a telecommunications engineer in Strasbourg from 1934, he found a job in 1936 at Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française (ORTF) in Paris. It was there that he began to experiment with recorded sounds, convincing the radio station's management to let him use their equipment. He tried playing sounds backwards, slowing them down, speeding them up and juxtaposing them with other sounds, all techniques which were virtually unknown at that time. His first completed piece as a result of these experimentation was the Étude aux chemins de fer (1948) which was made from recordings of trains.

By that time, Schaeffer had founded the Jeune France group, which had interests in theatre and visual art as well as music. In 1942, he co-founded the Studio d'Essai (later known as the Club d'Essai), which played an role in the activities of the French resistance during World War II, and became a centre of musical activity afterwards.

In 1949, Schaeffer met Pierre Henry, and the two founded the Groupe de Recherche de Musique Concrète (GRMC) which received official recognition from ORTF in 1951. They gave him a new studio, which included a tape recorder. This was a significant development for Schaeffer, who had previously had to work with turntables to produce his music. His continued experimentation led him to publish A la recherche d'une musique concrete (The Search for a Concrete Music) in 1952, which was a summation of his working methods up to that point.

Schaeffer left the GRMC in 1953, but reformed it in 1958 with Luc Ferrari and François-Bernard Mâche as the Groupe de Recherches Musicales (GRM).

With the founding of the Service de Recherche de l'ORTF in 1960, of which he was made director, Schaeffer began to wind down his compositional activites in favour of sound research and teaching. One of his last pieces came in 1959, the Etudes aux Objets. In his new position, he continued to conduct his research into the sonic properties of objects, publishing an important work on the subject, Traité des objets musicaux, in 1966. In it, he attempts to classify all sound producing objects by dividing their characteristics into seven categories, which he called mass; dynamic; harmonic timbre; melodic profile; mass profile; gain; and inflection. Up to now no English translation of this massive work has appeared.

Schaeffer took a number of teaching posts, including an associate professorship at the Paris Conservatoire from 1968 where he taught electronic composition. Towards the end of his life, he suffered from Alzheimer's disease. He died in Aix-en-Provence.
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Artista

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Albums

F51 Liberation de Paris — Pierre Schaeffer Various, Pierre Schaeffer Various, Pierre Schaeffer - Liberation de Paris(4xShellac, 12", Album, Alb) Disc Records F51 US 1944 Vendi questa versione
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50 The Liberation Of Paris — Pierre Schaeffer Various, Pierre Schaeffer Various, Pierre Schaeffer - The Liberation Of Paris(3xShellac, 12", Album, Alb) Asch Records 50 US 1945 Vendi questa versione
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DTL.93121, DTL 93121, DTL93121 Pierre Henry / Pierre Schaeffer / Michel Philippot Pierre Henry / Pierre Schaeffer / Michel Philippot - Panorama Of Musique Concrète No. 2 (Works By Henry, Schaeffer And Philippot) (LP, Promo) London Ducretet-Thomson, London Ducretet-Thomson, London Ducretet-Thomson DTL.93121, DTL 93121, DTL93121 UK 1957 Vendi questa versione
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SR 2 Solfège De L'Objet Sonore — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer & Guy Reibel Pierre Schaeffer & Guy Reibel - Solfège De L'Objet Sonore Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) SR 2 France 1967 Vendi questa versione
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6521 021 Étude Aux Objets - Étude Aux Allures - Étude Aux Sons Animés - Étude De Bruits - L'oiseau RAI - Suite Quatorze — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer Étude Aux Objets - Étude Aux Allures - Étude Aux Sons Animés - Étude De Bruits - L'oiseau RAI - Suite Quatorze Philips 6521 021 France 1971 Vendi questa versione
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6510 012 Symphonie Pour Un Homme Seul / Concerto Des Ambiguïtés — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer & Pierre Henry Pierre Schaeffer & Pierre Henry - Symphonie Pour Un Homme Seul / Concerto Des Ambiguïtés (Album) Philips 6510 012 France 1972 Vendi questa versione
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6510 018 Le Trièdre Fertile — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer Le Trièdre Fertile (Album) Philips 6510 018 France 1978 Vendi questa versione
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n° 9106 sc Parole Et Musique — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer Parole Et Musique(LP) INA-GRM n° 9106 sc France 1982 Vendi questa versione
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AMR 065 Panorama Of Musique Concrete — Pierre Schaeffer Henry* - Schaeffer* - Arthuys* Henry* - Schaeffer* - Arthuys* - Panorama Of Musique Concrete(12xFile, MP3, 320) Sinetone AMR AMR 065 2010
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none Musique Experimentale — Pierre Schaeffer Groupe De Recherches Musicales, Pierre Schaeffer Groupe De Recherches Musicales, Pierre Schaeffer - Musique Experimentale(8xFile, MP3, Comp, 320) BNF Collection none France 2013
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TRS20 L'expérience Musicale - 1959 — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer L'expérience Musicale - 1959(6xFile, WAV) Transversales Disques TRS20 France 2021
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Singles & EPs

none Étude Pathétique / Bidule En Ut — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer / Pierre Henry Pierre Schaeffer / Pierre Henry - Étude Pathétique / Bidule En Ut(Acetate, 12") Not On Label none France 1950 Vendi questa versione
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- 1948/1952 — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Henry, Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Henry, Pierre Schaeffer - 1948/1952(Acetate, 12") Not On Label - 1952 Vendi questa versione
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EX 241 Musique Concrète 1959 N° 1 — Pierre Schaeffer Groupe De Recherches Musicales De La R.T.F.* Direction: Pierre Schaeffer Groupe De Recherches Musicales De La R.T.F.* Direction: Pierre Schaeffer - Musique Concrète 1959 N° 1 (EP) BAM EX 241 France 1959 Vendi questa versione
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EX 242 Musique Concrète 1959 N° 2 — Pierre Schaeffer Groupe De Recherches Musicales De La R.T.F.* Direction: Pierre Schaeffer Groupe De Recherches Musicales De La R.T.F.* Direction: Pierre Schaeffer - Musique Concrète 1959 N° 2 (EP, Single) BAM EX 242 France 1959 Vendi questa versione
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ML 164 Anamorphoses I & II — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer Anamorphoses I & II(7") Gravesaner Blätter ML 164 Germany 1960 Vendi questa versione
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Compilations

PN 0461/5 Dix Ans d'Essais Radiophoniques Du Studio Au Club D'Essai : 1942-1952 — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer Dix Ans d'Essais Radiophoniques Du Studio Au Club D'Essai : 1942-1952(4xCD, Comp, RE) Phonurgia Nova PN 0461/5 France 1989 Vendi questa versione
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INA C 1006-1007 1008-1009 L'Œuvre Musicale — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer L'Œuvre Musicale (Comp) INA-GRM, Librairie Séguier INA C 1006-1007 1008-1009 France 1990 Vendi questa versione
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14191-2, 14191-2 (CD 1), 14192-2 (CD 2), 14193-2 (CD2), 14194-2 (CD4) La Coquille À Planètes: Suite Fantastique Pour Une Voix Et Douze Monstres En Huit Emissions Radiophoniques — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer / Claude Arrieu Pierre Schaeffer / Claude Arrieu - La Coquille À Planètes: Suite Fantastique Pour Une Voix Et Douze Monstres En Huit Emissions Radiophoniques(4xCD, Comp, Mono, RE) Disques Adès, Disques Adès, Disques Adès, Disques Adès, Disques Adès 14191-2, 14191-2 (CD 1), 14192-2 (CD 2), 14193-2 (CD2), 14194-2 (CD4) France 1990 Vendi questa versione
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Ina G 6013, Ina G 6014, Ina G 6015, Ina G 6016 Pierre Schaeffer : Paroles D'Homme — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer : Paroles D'Homme(4xCD, Comp + Box) INA-GRM, INA-GRM, INA-GRM, INA-GRM Ina G 6013, Ina G 6014, Ina G 6015, Ina G 6016 France 2008 Vendi questa versione
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FDM 46050 36286 1 5 Études De Bruits - Étude Aux Objets — Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Schaeffer 5 Études De Bruits - Étude Aux Objets(LP, Comp) Disques Dreyfus FDM 46050 36286 1 France 2010 Vendi questa versione